Greenwood and Foden, who were sent home from Iceland last month after breaching COVID-19 quarantine guidelines, have been left out.
Maguire is included after being withdrawn from the last squad.
Manchester United captain Maguire was given a suspended prison sentence on the Greek island of Syros after being found guilty of aggravated assault, resisting arrest, and repeated attempts of bribery.
The center-back maintains his innocence and has appealed against the decision, which nullifies the conviction.
England play Wales in a friendly on 8 October, before Nations League against Belgium and Denmark on 11 and 14 October respectively, all three games will be played at Wembley Stadium.
Calvert-Lewin is awarded his first call-up by Southgate after scoring eight goals in five appearances in all competitions so far this season, including two hat-tricks.
“I’m a very, very proud man to get this first England call,” said the 23-year-old.
“I phoned my mum and my dad, and my mum burst into tears.
“It’s something we’ve spoken about since I was a young boy. To get here now and get the call-up is a dream come true. I’m very happy.”
Southgate said: “Dominic is a player whose all-round game we have liked for some time. What he’s added over the last 18 months is goals and for a striker that’s critical.
“He’s in a really rich vein of form. He thoroughly deserves his opportunity.”